A big part of the success of the Montreal Protocol is that, in the 80s, it was not a one-and-done. On the contrary, the treaty has been amended many times in order to make the agreement better for the environment every time. The Kigali change is the latest update of its kind and proposes that HFCs expire, starting with higher-income countries and taking on all counties by 2024. This exit would limit global warming by 0.5 degrees Celsius during this century. On 23 June 2015, all UN countries, the Cook Islands, the Holy See, Niue and the European Union ratified the original Montreal Protocol (see link leaving this page) [42], with South Sudan being the last country to ratify the agreement, bringing the total to 197. These countries have also ratified the london, Copenhagen, Montreal and Beijing amendments. [12] We need all hands on deck to slow and reverse the trends of global warming. The Montreal Protocol provides us with a good model for the future that shows a successful implementation of international environmental policy. Admittedly, the Montreal Protocol is different from the Paris Agreement, but we can only benefit from studying the success of the former. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) is a 1987 international agreement. It was designed to stop the production and import of ozone-depleting substances and reduce their concentration in the atmosphere in order to protect the planet`s ozone layer. Chemicals such as HCFCs and their substitutes HFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) and now HFCs (hydrocarbons) contribute significantly to climate change.

HFCs do not harm the ozone layer, but have a warming capacity of 1,000 to 9,000 in the form of carbon dioxide. These chemicals are often used in refrigeration and air conditioning techniques. The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol have been ratified by 196 United Nations and the European Union[12], making them the first universally ratified treaties in the history of the United Nations. [13] Because of its widespread adoption and implementation, the Montreal Protocol has been hailed as an example of exceptional international cooperation, which Mr. Kofi Annan has called “perhaps the most successful international agreement to date.” [14] [15] The Parties to the Montreal Protocol have advisory bodies designated as evaluation bodies. Withdrawal The assessment bodies are responsible for regularly reporting on progress in implementing the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances, including assessments of alternatives and emission reductions. As part of its contribution to the Multilateral Fund, Australia is also undertaking a number of bilateral projects in developing countries. These projects use Australian skills and technologies and contribute to raising the profile of Australian know-how and expertise in ozone protection initiatives. The protocol remains the only UN treaty to have been unanimously ratified by all UN member states. Today, the hole in the ozone layer repairs itself and is expected to fully recover and heal completely in the coming decades.

Equally important is the impact of this treaty on the fight against climate change. From 1989 to 2013, the protocol`s ban on certain chemicals reduced cumulative CO2 equivalent emissions by 135 billion tonnes. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, commonly known as HCFCs, are a group of artificial compounds containing hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon. They are found nowhere in nature. HCKW production began to increase after countries agreed in the 1980s to end the use of ozone-depleting CFCs. Like CFCs, HFCs are used for cooling, aerosol biofuels, foam production and air conditioning. However, unlike CFCs, most HFCs are removed in the lowest part of the atmosphere and pose a much lower risk to the ozone layer. Yet, despite their very low atmospheric concentrations, measured in part by trillions (millions of millions), HFCs are very potent greenhouse gases.